Rudolph Giuliani’s Worldview Still Shaped by 9/11 Attacks

Through it all, Mr. Giuliani’s basic approach has been much the same: Peace can be achieved by showing strength, and diplomacy is sometimes best conducted by being undiplomatic.

“Sometimes in diplomacy you want to set parameters, not just go in saying that, no matter what you’re going to be diplomatic,” said Stuart Gottlieb, an international affairs professor at Columbia University, who worked with several of Mr. Giuliani’s campaigns. “With the Obama years, particularly under John Kerry,” he added, referring to the current secretary of state, “we’ve often seen compromise and bending as a first principle. I think Giuliani would replace that.”

Mr. Giuliani’s forays into foreign affairs as mayor were often meant for a…

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